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Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a type of phospholipid and is an essential component of cell membranes. Cell membranes are composed of a double layer of lipid molecules (primarily phospholipids) in which enzymes and other proteins are embedded. As PS is also a phospholipid, it is well suited to support enzymes and proteins in nerve cell membranes. By strengthening and revitalizing the membranes that surround brain cells, PS also improves nutrient flow into the cells, providing them with the food they need to function properly. This, in turn, promotes overall brain function.

PS activates and regulates proteins involved in proper nerve cell function, including the generation, transmission, reception, and storage of nerve impulses. Unlike many pharmaceutical drugs that raise or lower single chemical transmitters, PS supports multiple major transmitter systems, promoting overall brain function.

PS is naturally present in the brain and is synthesized from phospholipid building blocks. This nutrient is highly bioavailable (easily absorbed by the body) and is able to breach the blood-brain barrier to exert its positive influence on the brain. Once inside nerve cell membranes, PS also acts as a storehouse for phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) -- similar phospholipids also present in cell membranes.


Ailments / Situations Where Used

By supporting nerve cell membranes and their various functions, phosphatidylserine may assist in maintaining or improving general brain function, including memory, learning, and concentration functions. Research has shown that this nutrient is particularly beneficial for adults of fifty years of age and older.

This nutrient's effect on cognitive function -- including short term item recall (names, dates, phone numbers, et cetera) -- adaptability, and mood sociability make PS supplementation suitable for people with Alzheimer's disease. PS may slow the rate of deterioration, but will not prevent the progression of Alzheimer's. A number of studies recommend supplementation with this nutrient as early as possible if used to treat the onset of Alzheimer's.

As with vitamin E and Coenzyme Q10, phosphatidylserine promotes energy use in the brain by supporting mitochondria activity in cells, responsible for ATP (energy) production. Your brain uses 20% of total body energy when at rest and up to 60% when engaged in challenging mental work. This helps explain why you feel hungry after studying all day or working on finalizing that key presentation!

PS has also been used to treat depression and stress by supporting proper nervous system function.



Phosphatidylserine is produced internally in the body from phospholipid building blocks. It is present in trace amounts in rice, soy, and green leafy vegetables. Small amounts are also present in lecithin.

Synthesized PS is primarily derived from soy but has been sourced from bovine (cow) brain tissue in the past. Animal derived PS is quite rare today. Nevertheless, vegetarians and vegans who choose to supplement with PS should ensure their preparation is derived from a vegetable source.


Optimal Absorption

If supplementing, take 100 - 200mg twice daily.

Complementary vitamins include Vitamin E and Coenzyme Q10.


Contraindications / Precautions / Warnings

No known contraindications.


Ailment / Situation Listing


Alzheimer's Disease


Memory Problems